The average EDI scores for each developmental area – Physical Health and Well-Being, Social Competence, Emotional Maturity, Language and Cognitive Development, and Communication Skills and General Knowledge – are divided into categories representing the highest scores to the lowest scores in the community and the province.
The total group of children who score between the lowest 10th and 25th percentiles of the distribution. This represents a group of children who are not in the “vulnerable” range at the time of the EDI assessment but whose scores are still lower than expected for children at that age. They are therefore called “at risk” for continuing on the low achievement and health trajectory. Children who are “not on track” (that is, vulnerable and at risk combined) are more likely to fall behind in later grades in academic achievement (Calman & Crawford, 2013).
Our reports focus on the children who fall in the “Vulnerable” category, which describes the children who score low (below the 10th percentile cut-off of the comparison population) on any of the five domains. This provides a glimpse into the groups of children who are vulnerable for problems in later childhood by casting a wide net that includes all children who may benefit from universal programs. It captures the children who are struggling, but not only those who are doing so visibly to have already been identified. This group represents children for whom cost-effective, universal preventive programs are likely to make a difference.
The sample table below illustrates the percentage of children that are vulnerable on at least one or on at least two domains based the Normative II cut-offs. These are compared to the percentages for the Normative II Cohort. The percentage of children who are vulnerable using Normative II cut-offs reflects the vulnerability in a given site in relation to the distribution of scores in the Canadian population.
We can also display vulnerability in relation to community or provincial/territorial cut-offs to provide a more localized look at how children are doing. For example, the Peel region in Ontario may look at how specific neighbourhoods in Peel compare to the overall region. We also find that the lows for the regions based on the provincial or territorial cut-points are useful when we compare regions/schools/neighbourhoods across that province or territory.
Percentage of Vulnerable Children by EDI Domain
The sample table below illustrates the percentage of children who fall below the 10th percentile cut-off in the sample community based on Normative II cut-offs. These are compared to the percentages for the Normative II Cohort. The percentage of vulnerable children by domain using Normative II cut-offs reflects the vulnerability in a given site in relation to the distribution of scores in the Canadian population.
We do not endorse the use of an EDI total score. The five EDI domains are not cumulative in nature and explore different concepts. It is not uncommon that a child only has difficulties in one area/domain and does require intervention, however by using an EDI total score you would mask these difficulties as it would not be reflected in a total score.
Scores for domains and subdomains on the EDI vary from 0 to 10. Some subdomains represent skills that a child in kindergarten, based on his or her developmental age, is expected to have mastered already (e.g., physical independence). Other subdomains represent areas of development that are still emerging (e.g., prosocial behaviour). Subdomain profiles can provide an in-depth look at the areas in which children are performing strongly or poorly.
Based on skills and abilities that each subdomain represents, groups of scores were identified representing children who met all/almost all developmental expectations (reach the expectations for all or most of the subdomain items), some of the developmental expectations (reach the expectations for some of the subdomain items), and met few/none of the developmental expectations (reach expectations for none or few of the subdomain items). In contrast to the “on track”, “at risk”, and “vulnerable” groups identified for domains, which are based on the distribution of scores in the province or in Canada, the subdomain categories are distribution-free.
The sample graph below shows the distribution of children in a sample community who fall in each of the three subdomain categories. The sample community is compared to the Canada-wide Normative II Cohort distribution.
Gross and fine motor skills
Children who reach all or almost all of the developmental expectations have an excellent ability to physically tackle the school day and have excellent or good gross and fine motor skills.
Children who reach few or none of the developmental expectations range from those who have an average ability to perform skills requiring gross and fine motor competence and good or average overall energy levels, to those who have poor fine and gross motor skills, poor overall energy levels and poor physical skills.