Bibliography of the EDI

Return to Main Bibliography



Bell, M. F., Bayliss, D. M., Glauert, R., Harrison, A., & Ohan, J. L. (2016). Chronic illness and developmental vulnerability at school entry. Pediatrics, 137, 1-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2475

Bell, M. F., Bayliss, D. M., Glauert, R., & Harrison, A. (2018). Children of parents who have been hospitalized with psychiatric disorders are at risk of poor school readiness. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 1-13. doi: 10.1017/S2045796018000148

Bell, M. F., Bayliss, D. M., Glauert, R., Ohan, J. L. (2018). School readiness of maltreated children: Associations of timing, type, and chronicity of maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 76, 426-439. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.12.001

Bentley, J. P., Roberts, C. L., Bowen, J. R., Martin, A. J., Morris, J. M., Nassar, N. (2016). Planned birth before 39 weeks and child development: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 138. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2002

Bentley, J. P., Schneuer, F. J., Lain, J. S., Martin, A. J., Gordon, A., & Nassar, N. (2018). Neonatal morbidity at term, early child development, and school performance: A population study. Pediatrics, 141, 1-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1726

Brinkman, S.A., Gialamas, A., Rahman, A., Mittinty, M.N., Gregory, T.A., Silburn, S., Goldfeld, S., Zubrick, S.R., Carr, V., Janus, M., Hertzman, C. & Lynch, J.W. (2012). Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: analysis of a national census of 5-year-olds in Australia. BMJ Open, 2(5). Available Online.

Brinkman, S. A., Gregory, T. A., Goldfeld, S., Lynch, J. W., & Hardy, M. (2014). Data resource profile: The Australian Early Development Index (AEDI). International Journal of Epidemiology, 1-8. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu085

Brinkman, S., Gregory, T., Harris, J., Hart, B., Blackmore, S., & Janus, M. (2013). Associations between the Early Development Instrument at age 5, and reading and numeracy skills at ages 8, 10 and 12: a prospective linked data study. Child Indicators Research, 6(4), 695-708. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9189-3

Brinkman, S. A., Hasan, A., Jung, H., Kinnell, A., & Pradhan, M. (2015). The impact of expanding access to childhood services in rural Indonesia: Evidence from two cohorts of children (Policy Research Working Paper No. WPS 7372) Retrieved from World Bank website:

Brinkman, S. A., Kinnell, A., Maika, A., Hasan, A., Jung, H., & Pradhan, M. (2016). Validity and reliability of the Early Development Instrument in Indonesia. Child Indicators Research,  1-22.  doi: 10.1007/s12187-016-9372-4

Brinkman, S., Sayers, M., Goldfeld, S. & Kline, J. (2009). Population monitoring of language and cognitive development in Australia: The Australian Early Development Index. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11(5), 419-430. doi: 10.1080/17549500903147552

Brinkman, S., Silburn, S., Lawrence, D., Goldfeld, S., Sayers, M. & Oberklaid, F. (2007). Investigating the validity of the Australian Early Development Index. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 427-452. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610812

Brownell, M. D., Ekuma, O., Nickel, N. C., Chartier, M., Koseva, I., & Santos, R. G. (2016). A population-based analysis of factors that predict early language and cognitive development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 6-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.10.004

Brownell, M. D., Nickel, N. C., Enns, J. E., Chartier, M., Campbell, R., Phillips-Beck, W., … & Katz, A. (2017). Association between home visiting interventions and First Nations families’ health and social outcomes in Manitoba, Canada: Protocol for a study of linked population-based administrative data. BMJ Open, 7, 1-11. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017626


Calman, R.C., & Crawford, P.J. (2013). Starting early: Teaching, learning, and assessment. Linking early child development with academic outcomes – a detailed look. Education Quality and Accountability Office, Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Available Online.

Canadian Council of Learning. (2008). Bringing it Together: Merging Community-Based, Life-Course, Linked Data, and Social Indicator Approaches to Monitoring Child Development. (J.E.V. Lloyd, ed.). Proceedings of the Early Childhood Learning Knowledge Centre’s Monitoring and Reporting Committee. Toronto, ON: Canadian Council on Learning. Available Online.

Carpiano, R.M., Lloyd, J.E.V. & Hertzman, C. (2009). Concentrated affluence, concentrated disadvantage, and children’s readiness for school: A population-based, multi-level investigation. Social Science & Medicine69, 420-432. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.05.028

Carr, V. J., Harris, F., Raudino, A., Luo, L., Kariuki, M., Liu, E., … Green, M. J. (2016). New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS): An Australian multiagency, multigenerational longitudinal record linkage study. BMJ Open, 6, 1-9. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009023

Castro, S., & Grande, C. (2016). Linking the Early Development Instrument with the ICF-CY. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 1-13. doi: 10.1080/20473869.2016.1199112

Chittleborough, C. R., Searle, A. K., Smithers, L. G., Brinkman, S., Lynch, J. W. (2016). How well can poor child development be predicted from early life characteristics: A whole-of-population data linkage study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 19-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.10.006

Christian, H., Ball, S. J., Zubrick, S. R., Brinkman, S., Turrell, G., Boruff, B., & Foster, S. (2017). Relationship between the neighbourhood built environment and early child development. Health & Place, 48, 90-101. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.08.010

Cohen, L. E., & Friedman, D. E. (2015). The Early Development Instrument: A bioecological view of school readiness. In J. M. Iorio & W. Parnell (Eds.), Rethinking readiness in early childhood education (pp. 49-64). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Collie, R. J., Martin, A. J., Nassar, N., & Roberts, C. L. (2018). Social and emotional behavioral profiles in kindergarten: A population-based latent profile analysis of links to socio-educational characteristics and later achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi: 10.1037/edu0000262

Collie, R. J., Martin, A. J., Roberts, C. L., & Nassar, N. (2018). The roles of anxious and prosocial behavior in early academic performance: A population-based study examining unique and moderated effects. Learning and Individual Differences, 62, 141-152. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2018.02.004

Corter, C., Patel, S., Pelletier, J. & Bertrand, J. (2008). The Early Development Instrument as an evaluation and improvement tool for school-based, integrated services for young children and parents: the Toronto first duty project. Early Education and Development19, 773-794. doi: 10.1080/10409280801911888

Comaskey, B., Roos, N. P., Brownell, M., Enns, M. W., Chateau, D., Ruth, C. A., Ekuma, O. (2017). Maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD) and child development: A Manitoba population-based study. PLoS ONE, 12, 1-19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177065

Curtin, M., Baker, D., Staines, A., & Perry, I. J. (2014). Are the special educational needs of children in their first year in primary school in Ireland being identified: A cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatrics, 14, 52. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-52

Curtin, M., Madden, J., Staines, A., & Perry, I.J. (2013). Determinants of vulnerability in early childhood development in Ireland: a cross-sectional study. British Medical Journal Open, 3(5), 1-9. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002387

Cushon, J., Vu, L.T.H., Janzen, B.L. & Muhajarine, N. (2011). Neighborhood poverty impacts children’s physical health and well-being over time: Evidence from the Early Development Instrument. Early Education and Development22, 183-205. doi: 10.1080/10409280902915861


D’Angiulli, A., Warburton, W., Dahinten, S. & Hertzman, C. (2009). Population-level associations between preschool vulnerability and grade-four basic skills. PLoS One4, e7692. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007692

Davies, S. (2013). Are there catholic school effects in Ontario, Canada? European Sociological Review, 29(4), 871-883. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcs065

Davies, S., Janus, M., Duku, E., & Gaskin, A. (2016). Using the Early Development Instrument to examine cognitive and non-cognitive school readiness and elementary student achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 63-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.10.002

Dean, K., Green, M., Laurens, K., Kariuki, M., Tzoumakis, S., Sprague, T., . . . & Carr, V. (2018). The impact of parental mental illness across the full diagnostic spectrum on externalising and internalising vulnerabilities in young offspring. Psychological Medicine, 1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717003786

Dennaoui, K., Nicholls, R. J., O’Connor, M., Tarasuik, J., Kvalsvig, A., & Goldfeld, S. (2015). The English proficiency and academic skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years. International Journal or Speech-Language Pathology, 1-9. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2015.1060526

Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Séguin, J.R., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R.E. (2008). Gestational diabetes hinders language development in offspring. Pediatrics122, 1073-1079. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3028

Doyle, O., McEntee, L. & McNamara, K.A. (2012). Skills, capabilities and inequalities at school entry in a disadvantaged community. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(1), 133-154. Available Online.

Duku, E., Janus, M., & Brinkman, S. (2015). Investigation of the cross-national equivalence of a measurement of early child development. Child Indicators Research8, 471-489. doi: 10.1007/s12187-014-9249-3



Falster, K., Hanly, M., Banks, E., Lynch, J., Chambers, G., Brownell, M., … & Jorm, L. (2018). Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children. PLoS: Medicine, 15, 1-20. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002558

Falster, K., Jorm, L., Eades, S., Lynch, J., Banks, E., Brownell, M., … Randall, D. (2015). What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study). BMJ Open, 5, 1-13. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007898

Falster, K., Jorgensen, M., Hanly, M., Banks, E., Brownell, M., Eades, S., … & Jorm, L. (2017). Data resource profile: Seeding Success: a cross-sectoral data resource for early childhood health and development research in Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. International Journal of Epidemiology, 1-12. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyx051

Fiorentino, L. & Howe, N. (2004). Language competence, narrative ability, and school readiness in low-income preschool children. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 36, 280-294. doi: 10.1037/h0087237

Forer, B., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Validation of multilevel constructs: Validation methods and empirical findings for the EDI. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 231-265, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9844-3.

Forer, B., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Validation of multilevel constructs: Validation methods and empirical findings for the EDI. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 231-265, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9844-3.

Forget-Dubois, N., Lemelin, J-P., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Séguin, J.R., Vitaro, F. & Tremblay, R.E. (2007). Predicting early school achievement with the EDI: A longitudinal population-based study. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 405-426. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610796

Fortier, J., Chartier, M., Turner, S., Murdock, N., Turner, F., Sareen, J., … & Jiang, D. (2018). Adapting and enhancing PAX Good Behavior Game for First Nations communities: A mixed-methods study protocol developed with Swampy Cree Tribal Council communities in Manitoba. BMJ Open, 8, 1-11. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018454

Fu, K-w., Ho, F. K. W., Rao, N., Jiang, F., Li, S. L., Lee, T. M-c.,… & Ip, P. (2017). Parental restriction reduces the harmful effects of in-bedroom electronic devices. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 0, 1-7. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-312639


Gaston, A., Edwards, S. A., & Tober, J.A. (2015). Parental leave and child care arrangements during the first 12 months of life are associated with children’s development five years later. International Journal of Child, Youth & Family Studies, 6, 230-251. doi: 10.18357/ijcyfs.62201513500

Geddes, R., Woolfson, L. M., McNicol, S., Booth, J. N., Wray, S., Hardie, S., … & Frank, J. (2014). Translating research into practice: A cross-sectional study using the Early Development Instrument to assess early years interventions in local level public health practice. The Lancet, 384, S33. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62159-0

Goldfeld, S., Kvalsvig, A., Incledon, E., O’Connor, M. (2016). Epidemiology of positive mental health in a national census of children at school entry. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 0, 1-7. doi: 10.1136/jech-2015-207061

Goldfeld, S., Kvalsvig, A., Incledon, E., O’Connor, M., & Mensah, F. (2014). Predictors of mental health competence in a population cohort of Australian children. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health68, 1004-1008. doi: 10.1136/jech-2013-203007

Goldfeld, S., O’Connor, E., O’Connor, M., Sayers, M., Moore, T., Kvalsvig, A., & Brinkman, S. (2016). The role of preschool in promoting children’s healthy development: Evidence from an Australian population cohort. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 31-39. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.11.001

Goldfeld, S., O’Connor, M., Mithen, J., Sayers, M., & Brinkman, S. (2014). Early developmental of emerging and English-proficient bilingual children at school entry in an Australian population cohort. International Journal of Behavioral Development38, 42-51. doi: 10.1177/0165025413505945

Goldfeld, S., O’Connor, M., Sayers, M., Moore, T. & Oberklaid, F. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of special health needs in a population cohort of Australian children at school entry. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(4), 319-327. Available Online.

Goldfeld, S., O’Connor, M., Quach, J., Tarasuik, J., & Kvalsvig, A. (2014). Learning trajectories of children with special health care needs across the severity spectrum. Academic Pediatrics. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2014.09.001

Goldfeld, S., Sayers, M., Brinkman, S., Silburn, S. & Oberklaid, F. (2009). The process and policy challenges of adapting and implementing the Canadian Early Development Instrument in Australia. Early Education and Development20, 978-991. doi: 10.1080/10409280903375800

Graham, M. R., Brownell, M., Chateau, D. G., Dragan, R. D., Burchill, C., & Fransoo, R. R. (2016). Neurodevelopmental assessment in kindergarten in children exposed to general anesthesia before the age of 4 years: A retrospective matched cohort study. Anesthesiology, 125, 667-677. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001245

Green, M. J., Tzoumakis, S., Laurens, K. R., Dean, K., Kariuki, M., Harris, F., … & Carr, V. J. (2017). Latent profiles of early developmental vulnerabilities in a New South Wales child population at age 5 years. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/0004867417740208

Green, M. J., Tzoumakis, S., McIntyre, B., Kariuki, M., Laurens, K. R., Dean, K., … & Carr, V. J. (2017).  Childhood maltreatment and early development vulnerabilites at age 5 years. Child Development, 1-14. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12928

Gregory, T., & Brinkman, S. (2013). Methodological approach to exploring change in the Australia Early Development Instrument (AEDI): The estimation of a critical difference. Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Western Australia. ISBN 978-0-9876002-0-2. Available Online.

Guhn, M., Gadermann, A. M., Almas, A., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Hertzman, C. (2016). Associations of teacher-rated social, emotional, and cognitive development in kindergarten to self-reported wellbeing, peer relations, and academic test scores in middle childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.12.027

Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Hertzman, C. & Zumbo, B.D. (2010). Children’s development in kindergarten: A multilevel, population-based analysis of ESL and gender effects on socioeconomic gradients. Child Indicators Research3, 183-203. doi: 10.1007/s12187-009-9053-7

Guhn, M., Gadermann, A. & Zumbo, B.D. (2007). Does the EDI measure school readiness in the same way across different groups of children? Early Education and Development, 18(3), 453-472. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610838

Guhn, M., & Goelman, H. (2011). Bioecological theory, early child development and the validation of the population-level Early Development Instrument. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 193-217, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9842-5.

Guhn, M., Janus, M., Enns, J., Brownell, M., Forer, B., Duku, E., Muhajarine, N., & Raos, R. (2016). Examining the social determinants of children’s developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early child development. BMJ Open, 6, 1-9. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012020

Guhn, M., Janus, M. & Hertzman, C. (2007). Special Issue: The Early Development Instrument. Early Education and Development, 18 (3).

Guhn, M., Janus M. & Hertzman, C. (2007). Translating school readiness assessment into community actions and policy planning: The Early Development Instrument, Introduction to the Special Issue. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 369-374. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610622

Guhn, M., Milbrath, C., & Hertzman, C. (2016). Associations between child home language, gender, bilingualism and school readiness: A population-based study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 95-110. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.11.003

Guhn, M., Zumbo, B. D., Janus, M., & Hertzman, C. (2011). Opening remarks to the special issue on validation theory and research for a population-level measure of children’s development, wellbeing, and school readiness. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 179-181, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9840-7. Available Online.

Guhn, M., Zumbo, B. D., Janus, M., & Hertzman, C. (Eds.) (2011). Special issue: Validation theory and research for a population-level measure of children’s development, wellbeing, and school readiness. Social Indicators Research.

Guhn, M., Zumbo, B. D., Janus, M., & Hertzman, C. (2011). Validation theory and research for a population-level measure of children’s development, wellbeing, and school readiness at kindergarten. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 183-191, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9841-6.

Guthridge, S., Li, L., Silburn, S., Li, S. Q., McKenzie, J., & Lynch, J. (2016). Early influences on developmental outcomes among children, at age 5, in Australia’s Northern Territory. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 124-134. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.12.008


Hagquist, C., & Hellström, L. (2014). The psychometric properties of the Early Development Instrument: a rasch analysis based on Swedish pilot data. Social Indicators Research, 117, 301-317. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0344-5

Hanly, M., Falster, K., Chambers, G., Lynch, J., Banks, E., Homaira, N., … & Jorm, L. (2017). Gestational age and child development at age five in a population-based cohort of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12426

Harrison, L. J., Janus, M., Goldfeld, S., Guhn, M., & Brinkman, S. (2016). Special Issue: International research utilizing the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35.

Hertzman, C. (2004). Making early childhood development a priority: lessons from Vancouver. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Available Online.

Hertzman, C. (2010). Social geography of developmental health in the early years. Healthcare Quarterly, 14(Special Issue 1), 32-40. Available Online.

Hertzman, C. (2011). Bringing a population health perspective to early biodevelopment: An emerging approach. In D. P. Keating (Ed.), Nature and nurture in early child development, (pp. 217-244). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Hertzman, C. (2011). The role of administrative record linkage in creating trajectories of early human development. Healthcare Policy, 6(Special Issue), 55-62. Available Online.

Hertzman, C. & Bertrand, J. (2007). Children in poverty and the use of Early Development Instrument mapping to improve their worlds. Paediatric Child Health, 12(8), 687-692. Available Online.

Hertzman, C. & Boyce, T. (2010). How experience gets under the skin to create gradients in developmental health. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 329-347. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103538

Hertzman, C., Kershaw, P., Irwin, L.G., Trafford, K. & Wiens, M. Human Early Learning Partnership. Four uses of the EDI: The case of British Columbia.

Hertzman, C. & Williams, R. (2009). Making early childhood count. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180(1), 68-71. Available Online.

Hubley, A. M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Validity and the consequences of test interpretation and use. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 219-230, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9843-4.

Hymel, S., Le Mare, L., & McKee, W. (2011). The Early Development Instrument (EDI): An examination of convergent and discriminant validity. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 267-282, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9845-2.


Ip, P., Li, S.L., Rao, N., Ng, S.S.N., Lau, W.W.S., & Chow, C.B. (2013). Validation study of the Chinese Early Development Instrument. BioMed Central Pediatrics13, 1-8. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-146

Ip, P., Rao, N., Bacon-Shone, J., Li, S. L., Ho, F. K., Chow, C., & Jiang, F. (2016). Socioeconomic gradients in school readiness of Chinese preschool children: The mediating role of family processes and kindergarten quality. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 111-123. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.10.005


Janus, M. Offord Centre for Child Studies. The EDI: An indicator of developmental health at school entry.

Janus, M. (2004). Voices from the Field – Transition to school practices: the need for evidence. In: Tremblay, R.E., Barr, R.G., Peters, R.DeV., eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 104. Available Online.

Janus, M. (2006). Measuring community early child development. The Canadian Association of Principals Journal, 14(3), 14-16. Available Online.

Janus, M. (2006). Tools for measuring the well-being of children at school entry: International perspectives, specific applications in Jordan and Kosovo. In R. Lynkeus (Ed.), Tools for measuring the well-being of children, (pp. 59-67).Genoa, Italy: Fondazione Istituto Mediterraneo per l’infanzie – MedChild Institute.

Janus, M. (2007). The Early Development Instrument: A tool for monitoring children’s development and readiness for school. In M. E. Young & L. M. Richardson (Eds.) Early Child Development – From Measurement to Action. A Priority for Growth and Equity (pp. 141-155) Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available Online.

Janus, M. (2009). Population-level approach to interpretation and utility of early child development school readiness data: the Early Development Instrument. Pedagogical Review, 10(12), 99-115.

Janus, M. (2010). Estimating prevalence of behaviour problems in kindergarten children based on population-level data. In R. Zukauskiene (Ed.), Proceedings of the XIV European Conference on Developmental Psychology (Vilnius, Lithuania, 18-22 July 2009). (pp. 193-198). Bologna, Italy: Medimond International Proceedings. Available Online.

Janus, M. (2011). Impact of impairment on children with special needs at school entry: Comparison of school readiness outcomes in Canada, Australia, and Mexico. Exceptionality Education International, 21(2), 29-44. Available Online.

Janus, M. (2011). Transition to school: Child, family, and community-level determinants. In D. M. Laverick & M. R. Jalongo (Eds.), Transitions to early care and education. Educating the young child, 4(3), (pp. 177-187). Available Online.

Janus, M. (2013). Early Development Instrument: “From results to action survey” report. Available Online.

Janus, M., Brinkman, S. A., & Duku, E. K. (2011). Validity and psychometric properties of the Early Development Instrument in Canada, Australia, United States, and Jamaica. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 283-297, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9846-1.

Janus, M., Brinkman, S., Duku, E., Hertzman, C., Santos, R., Sayers, M. & Schroeder, J. (2007). The Early Development Instrument: A Population-based measure for communities. A handbook on development, properties, and use. Offord Centre for Child Studies, Hamilton, ON. Available Online.

Janus, M., Brinkman, S., & Guhn, M. (2013). Early Development Instrument. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research. New York, NY: Springer.

Janus, M. & Duku, E. (2007). The school entry gap: Socioeconomic, family, and health factors associated with children’s school readiness to learn. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 375-403. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610796a

Janus, M., Duku, E., Brinkman, S., Dunkelberg, E., Chianca, T., & Marino, E. (2014). Socioemotional development and its correlates among 5-year-old children in Peru and Brazil. The Journal of Latino-Latin American Studies6, 40-53. doi: 10.18085/llas.6.1.9730476466441574

Janus, M., & Gaskin, A. (2013). School readiness. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research. New York, NY: Springer.

Janus, M., Harrison, L. J., Goldfeld, S., Guhn, M., & Brinkman, S. (2016). International research utilizing the Early Development Instrument (EDI) as a measure of early child development: Introduction to the Special Issue. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.12.007

Janus, M., Hertzman, C., Guhn, M., Brinkman, S. & Goldfeld, S. (2009). “Letters to the Editor.” Reply to Li, D’Angiulli and Kendall: The Early Development Index and children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Early Years, 29(1), 83-87.

Janus, M., & Hopkins, S. (2012). Constructing measures of northern children’s identity through dialogue. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 10(2), 249-256. Available Online.

Janus, M., Kopechanski, L., Cameron, R., & Hughes, D. (2008). In transition: Experiences of parents of children with special needs at school entry. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(5), 479-485. Available Online.

Janus, M., Labonté, C., Kirkpatrick, R., Davies, S. & Duku, E. (2017). The impact of speech and language problems in kindergarten on academic learning and special education status in grade three. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. doi: 10.1080/17549507.2017.1381164

Janus, M., Lefort, J., Cameron, R., & Kopechanski, L. (2007). Starting kindergarten: Transition issues for children with special needs. Canadian Journal of Education, 30(3), 628-648. Available Online.

Janus, M., Mauti, E., Horner, M., Duku, E., Siddiqua, A., & Davies, S. (2017). Behaviour profiles of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Kindergarten: Comparison with other developmental disabilities and typically developing children. Autism Research. doi: 10.1002/aur.1904

Janus, M. & Offord, D. (2000). Reporting on readiness to learn at school in Canada. ISUMA: Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 1(2), 71-75.

Janus, M. & Offord, D. (2007). Development and psychometric properties of the Early Development Instrument (EDI): A measure of children’s school readiness. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 39(1), 1-22. Available Online.

Janus, M., & Reid-Westoby, C. (2016). Monitoring the development of all children: The Early Development Instrument. Early Childhood Matters, 125(1), 40-45. Available Online.

Janus, M., & Siddiqua, A. (2015). Challenges for children with special health needs at the time of transition to school. In: Gordon, M (Ed.), Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases, (pp. 165-197), Hershey, PA: IGI Global.


Kariuki, M., Raudino, A., Green, M.J., Laurens, K.R., Dean, K., Brinkman, S.A.,… & Carr, V.J. (2016). Hospital admission for infection during early childhood influences developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 52, 882-888. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13239

Keating, D.P. (2007). Formative evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: progress and prospects. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 561-570. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610937

Kershaw, P., Forer, B., Irwin, L.G., Hertzman, C. & Lapointe, V. (2007). Toward a social care program of research: A Population-level study of neighbourhood effects on child development. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 535-560. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610929

Kershaw, P., Forer, B., Lloyd, J.E.V., Hertzman, C., Boyce, W.T., Zumbo, B.D., Guhn, M., Milbrath, C., Irwin, L.G., Harvey, J., Hershler, R. & Smith, A. (2009). The use of population-level data to advance interdisciplinary methodology: A cell-through-society sampling framework for child development research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 12(5), 387-403. Available Online.

Kershaw, P., Warburton, B., Anderson, L., Hertzman, C., Irwin, L.G. & Forer, B. (2010). The economic cost of early vulnerability in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(Supplement 3), S8-S12. doi: 10.17269/cjph.101.2132

Khambalia, A. Z., Algert, C. S., Bowen, J. R., Collie, R. J., & Roberts, C. L. (2017). Long-term outcomes for large for gestational age infants born at term. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 53, 876-881. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13593

Kohen, D., Oliver, L. & Pierre, F. (2009). Examining the effects of schools and neighbourhoods on the outcomes of kindergarten children in Canada. International Journal of Speech and Language Pathology11, 404-418. doi: 10.1080/17549500903085919

Krishnan, V. (2014). The 14 decimal places (default) in EDI’s Norm II cut-off values: They do it, but do they increase accuracy? Alberta: Early Child Development Mapping (ECMAP) Project Alberta. Available Online.


Lain, S. J., Bentley, J. P., Wiley, V., Roberts, C. L., Jack, M., Wilcken, B., & Nassar, N. (2016). Association between borderline neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations and educational and developmental outcomes: A population-based record-linkage study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30122-X

Lapointe, V.R., Ford, L. & Zumbo, B.D. (2007). Examining the relationship between neighborhood environment and school readiness for kindergarten children. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 473-496. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610846

Laurin, I., Lavoie, S., Guay, D., Boucheron, L., Durand, D. & Goulet, N. (2012). School readiness survey of Montreal children starting school. Santé Publique, 24(1), 7-21. Available Online.

Laurin, I., Guay, D., Fournier, M., Bigras, N., & Solis, A. (2015). Attendance in educational preschool services: A protective factor in the development of children from low-income families?  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 106, eS14-eS20. doi: 10.17269/CJPH.106.4825

Lechance, M., Fernando, C. & Boughton, C. Canadian Council on Learning. Introducing the Composite Learning Index (CLI).

Lesaux, N.K, Vukovic, R.K., Hertzman, C. & Siegel, L.S. (2007). Context matters: The interrelatedness of early literacy skills, developmental health, and community demographics. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 497-518. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610861

Li, J., D’Angiulli, A. & Kendall, G.E. (2007). The early development index and children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Early Years27, 221-235. doi: 10.1080/09575140701594384

Lloyd, J. & Hertzman, C. Human Early Learning Partnership. From EDI to FSA: Longitudinal analysis with linked population data.

Lloyd, J.E.V. & Hertzman, C. (2009). From Kindergarten readiness to fourth-grade assessment: Longitudinal analysis with linked population data. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 111-123. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.063

Lloyd, J.E.V. & Hertzman, C. (2010). How neighbourhoods matter for rural and urban children’s language and cognitive development at kindergarten and grade 4. Journal of Community Psychology38, 293-313. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20365

Lloyd, J.E.V., Irwin, L.G. & Hertzman, C. (2009). Kindergarten school readiness and fourth-grade literacy and numeracy outcomes of children with special needs: A population-based study. Educational Psychology, 29(5), 583-602. Available Online.

Lloyd, J.E.V., Li, L. & Hertzman, C. (2010). Early experiences matter: Lasting effect of concentrated disadvantage on children’s language and cognitive outcomes. Health & Place, 16, 371-380. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.11.009


Maggi, S., Hertzman, C., Kohen, D. & D’Angiulli, A. (2004). Effects of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and class composition on highly competent children. Journal of Educational Research, 98(2), 109-114. Available Online.

Martens, P. J., Chateau, D. G., Burland, E. M., Finlayson, G. S., Smith, M. J., Taylor, C. R., … & Bolton, J. M. (2014). The effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on education and health outcomes for children living in social housing. American Journal of Public Health104, 2103-2113. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302133

McCormack, J. M. & Verdon, S. E. (2015). Mapping speech pathology services to developmentally vulnerable and at-risk communities using the Australian Early Development Census. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 273-286. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2015.1034175

McKeown, K., Haase, T., & Pratschke, J. (2015). Determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013. Irish Educational Studies,1-19. doi: 10.1080/03323315.2015.1065430

Moore, T., & West. S. (2016). Early intervention and the first thousand days of child development. Developing Practice: The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal, 44, 16-24.

Mousavi. A., & Krishnan, V. (2016). Measurement invariance of Early Development Instrument (EDI) domain scores across gender and ESL status. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 62, 288-305.

Mousavi, A., & Krishnan, V. (2014). Setting the scope for Early Child Development Instrument (EDI): A psychometric re-examination of the tool with Alberta data. Social Indicators Research. doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0711-x

Muhajarine, N., Puchala, C., & Janus, M. (2011). Does the EDI equivalently measure facets of school readiness for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children? Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 299-314, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9847-0.



O’Connor, E., O’Connor, M., Gray, S., & Goldfeld, S. (2018). Profiles of mental health competence and difficulties as predictors of children’s early learning. School Mental Health, 1-15. doi: 10.1007/s12310-018-9252-9 

O’Connor, M., O’Connor, E.J., Kvalsvig, A., & Goldfeld, S. (2014). The relationship between early childhood education and care and English proficiency at school entry for bilingual children in Australia. New Zealand Research in Early Childhood Education, 17, 161-181.

O’Connor, M., Gray, S., Tarasuik, J., O’Connor, E., Kvalsvig, A., Incledon, E., & Goldfeld, S. (2016). Preschool attendance trends in Australia: Evidence from two sequential population cohorts. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 40-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.11.004

O’Leary, J. D., Janus, M., Duku, E., Wijeysundera, D. N., To, T., Ping, L.,… & Crawford, M. W. (2016). A population-based study evaluating the association between surgery in early life and child development at primary school entry. Anesthesiology, 125, 272-279. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001200

Editorial featuring O’Leary et al. study: Kalkman, C.J., & Eriksson, L.I. (2016). Anesthetic neurotoxicity meets big data: Reasons to be cheerful? Anesthesiology, 125, 263-265. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001207

Oberklaid, F., Goldfeld, S., Sayers, M., Fraser, A., Silburn, S. & Brinkman, S. (2005). Australian early development index: Building better communities for children: Community Results 2004-2005. ISBN 0957828691. Commonwealth of Australia.

Oliver, L.N., Dunn, J.R., Kohen, D.E. & Hertzman, C. (2007). Do neighbourhoods influence the readiness to learn of kindergarten children in Vancouver? A multilevel analysis of neighbourhood effects. Environment and Planning A, 39, 848-868. doi: 10.1068/a37126


Patel, S., Corter, C., Pelletier, J., & Bertrand, J. (2016). ‘Dose-response’  relations between participation in integrated early childhood services and children’s early development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 49-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.12.006

Pearce, A., Scalzi, D., Lynch, J., Smithers, L. G. (2016). Do thin, overweight and obese children have poorer development than their healthy-weight peers at the start of school? Findings from a South Australian data linkage study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.10.007

Peers, C. (2011). The Australian Early Development Index: Reshaping family-child relationships in early childhood education. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 12, 134-147. doi: 10.2304/ciec.2011.12.2.134

Puchala, C., Vu, L.T.H. & Muhajarine, N. (2010). Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 3), S13-S18. doi: 10.17269/cjph.101.2133



Raos, R. & Janus, M. (2010). Examining spatial variations in the prevalence of behaviour problems among 5-year-old children in Canada. Social Science and Medicine, 72(3), 383-388. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.025

Razaz, N., Boyce, W. T., Brownell, M., Jutte, D., Tremlett, H., Marrie, R. A., & Joseph, K. S. (2015). Five-minute Apgar score as a marker for developmental vulnerability at 5 years of age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, F1-F7. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308458

Razaz, N., Tremlett, H., Boyce, W. T., Guhn, M., Joseph, K. S., & Marrie, R. A. (2015). Impact of parental multiple sclerosis on early childhood development: A retrospective cohort study. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 1-12. doi: 10.1177/1352458514559298


Sam, M. A. (2011). An Indigenous knowledges perspective on valid meaning making: A commentary on research with the EDI and Aboriginal communities. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 315-325, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9848-z.

Santos, R., Brownell, B., Ekuma, O., Mayer, T. & Sodeen, R. (2012). The Early Development Instrument (EDI) in Manitoba: Linking socioeconomic adversity and biological vulnerability at birth to children’s outcomes at age 5. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Available Online.

Sayers, M. (2004). Every Child, Australian Early Development Index: Building Better Communities for Children project including what is involved for communities, the aims of community use of the AEDI and why we need to rethink the way we support families with young children. Every Child, 10(4).

Sayers, M., Coutts, M., Goldfeld, S., Oberklaid, F., Brinkman, S. & Silburn, S. (2007). Building better communities for children: Community implementation and e valuation of the Australian Early Development Index. Early Education and Development, 18(3), 519-534. doi: 10.1080/10409280701610879

Siddiqua, A. & Janus, M. (2017). Experiences of parents of children with special needs at school entry: a mixed method approach. Child: care, health and development, 1-11. doi: 10.1111/cch.12443

Silburn, S., Brinkman, S., Ferguson-Hill, S., Styles, I., Walker, R. & Sheppard, C. (2009). The Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) Indigenous adaptation study. Available Online.

Silburn, S., Brinkman, S., Sayers, M., Goldfeld, S. & Oberklaid, F. (2007). Establishing the construct and predictive validity of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI). Early Human Development, 83(Suppl. 1), S125. doi: 10.1016/S0378-3782(07)70321-3

Sincovich, A., & Brinkman, S. (2014). AEDI: From research to policy. Every Child, 20(1), 16-17.

Smithers, L. G., Gialamas, A., Scheil, W., Brinkman, S., & Lynch, J. W. (2014). Anaemia of pregnancy, perinatal outcomes and children’s developmental vulnerability: a Whole‐of‐Population Study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology28, 381-390. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12149

Soltanifar, M., Pahwa, P., & Muhajarine, N. (2017). A multilevel analysis of the contribution of individual, socioeconomic and geographical factors on kindergarten children’s developmental vulnerability: A Saskatchewan province wide study. Biostatistics and Biometrics Open Access Journal, 3(4). doi: 10.19080/BBOAJ.2017.03.555618

Sorin, R. (2008). Readiness for school – educators’ perceptions and the Australian early development index. Journal of Australian Research in Early Childhood Education, 15(2), 65-72. Available Online.


Tazi, Z. (2015). Ready for la escuela: School readiness and the languages of instruction in kindergarten. Journal of Multilingual Education Research, 5, 11-31. Available Online.

Thomson, K. C., Guhn, M., Richardson, C. G., Ark, T. K., & Shoveller, J. (2017). Profiles of children’s social-emotional health at school entry and associated income, gender and language inequalities: a cross-sectional population-based study in British Columbia, Canada. BMJ Open, 7, 1-10. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015353

Tzoumakis, S., Dean, K., Green, M. J., Zheng, C., Kariuki, M., Harris, F.,… & Laurens, K. R. (2017). The impact of parental offending on offspring aggression in early childhood: a population-based record linkage study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s00127-017-1347-3


UNICEF Office of Research. (2013). Child well-being in rich countries: A comparative overview. Innocenti Report Card 11, Florence. Available Online.


Villanueva, K., Badland, H., Giles-Corti, B., & Goldfeld, S. (2015). Using spatial analysis of the Australian Early Development Index to advance our understanding of ‘neighbourhood effects’ research on child health and development. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 51, 577-579. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12822 

Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Girard, A., & Dionne, G. (2012). Social experiences in kindergarten and academic achievement in grade 1: A monozygotic twin difference study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 366-380. doi: 10.1037/a0026879


Webb, S., Janus, M., Duku, E., Raos, R., Brownell, M., Forer…, & Muhajarine, N. (2016). Neighbourhood socioeconomic status indices and early childhood development. SSM – Population Health, 3, 48-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.11.006

Woolfson, L.M., Geddes, R., McNicol, S., Booth, J.N., & Frank, J. (2013). A cross-sectional pilot study of the Scottish Early Development Instrument: a tool for addressing inequality. BMC Public Health, 13, 1187. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1187



Youmans, A. S., Kirby, J. R., & Freeman, J. G. (2017). How effectively does the full-day, play-based kindergarten programme in Ontario promote self-regulation, literacy, and numeracy? Early Child Development and Care, 1-13. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2017.1287177


Back to top

Last updated: April 26, 2018